|Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes means your blood glucose, or
blood sugar, is too high. With Type 1 diabetes, your
pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone
that helps glucose get into your cells to give them
energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in
your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead
to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys,
nerves, and gums and teeth.
Various factors may contribute to type 1 diabetes,
including genetics and exposure to certain viruses.
Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no
cure. But advances in blood sugar monitoring and
insulin delivery have simplified the daily routine
of managing type 1 diabetes. With proper treatment,
people who have type 1 diabetes can expect to live
long, healthy lives.
Type 1 diabetes
symptoms may seem harmless at first. Look for,
thirst and frequent urination. As excess sugar
builds up in your bloodstream, fluid is pulled
from your tissues. This may leave you thirsty.
As a result, you may drink and urinate more than
hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar
into your cells, your muscles and organs become
depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger
that may persist even after you eat. Without
insulin, the sugar in your food never reaches
your energy starved tissues.
Despite eating more than usual to relieve
hunger, you may lose weight sometimes
rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, your
muscle tissues and fat stores may simply shrink.
your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become
tired and irritable.
vision. If your blood sugar level is too high,
fluid may be pulled from your tissues including
the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your
ability to focus clearly.
type 1 diabetes, first you must understand how
glucose is normally processed in the body.
Glucose is a main
source of energy for the cells that make up your
muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two
major sources: the food you eat and your liver.
During digestion, sugar is absorbed into the
bloodstream. Normally, sugar then enters cells with
the help of insulin.
insulin comes from the pancreas, a gland located
just behind the stomach. When you eat, your pancreas
secretes insulin into your bloodstream. As insulin
circulates, it acts like a key by unlocking
microscopic doors that allow sugar to enter your
cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your
bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so
does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
Your liver acts
as a glucose storage and manufacturing center. When
your insulin levels are low when you haven't eaten
in a while, for example your liver releases the
stored glucose to keep your glucose level within a
In type 1
diabetes, your immune system which normally fights
harmful bacteria or viruses attacks and destroys the
insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves
you with little or no insulin. Instead of being
transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your
The exact cause
of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Genetics may play a
role. Exposure to certain viruses may serve as a
trigger as well.
exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, family
history may play a role. Your risk of developing
type 1 diabetes increases if you have a parent or
sibling who has type 1 diabetes.
tests can be used to screen for diabetes, including:
sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a
random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a
random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per
deciliter (mg/dL) or higher suggests diabetes.
sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after
an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level
between 70 and 100 mg/dL is normal. A fasting
blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL is
considered prediabetes, which indicates a high
risk of developing diabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL
or higher on two separate tests, you'll be
diagnosed with diabetes.
diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may do other
tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2
diabetes — which may require different treatment
strategies. Type 1 diabetes might be suspected if
you have little or no ability to produce insulin,
you have antibodies to insulin-producing cells in
your blood, or you have toxic acids produced by the
breakdown of fat (ketones) in your urine.
diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also
recommend a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This
blood test indicates your average blood sugar level
for the past two to three months. It works by
measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to
hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood
cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more
hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached.
Generally, a target A1C result is 7 percent or less.
Type 1 diabetes can't be prevented. Researchers are
studying various options for prevention, however.
For example, although oral insulin can't be used to
lower blood sugar, researchers are testing whether
an insulin capsule taken by mouth once a day can
prevent or delay type 1 diabetes in people who have
antibodies to insulin in their blood. In other
studies, researchers are testing ways to slow the
development of type 1 diabetes and preserve insulin
production in people recently diagnosed with type 1
Type 1 diabetes
can affect many major organs in your body, including
your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys.
Keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most
of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of
complications of type 1 diabetes require immediate
care. Left untreated, these conditions can cause
seizures and loss of consciousness (coma).
sugar (hyperglycemia). Your blood sugar level
can rise for many reasons, including eating too
much, being sick or not taking enough insulin.
Check your blood sugar level often, and watch
for signs and symptoms of high blood sugar —
frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth,
blurred vision, fatigue and nausea. If you have
hyperglycemia, you'll need to adjust your meal
plan, medications or both. If your blood sugar
level is persistently above 250 mg/dL, consult
your doctor right away or seek emergency care.
You might have diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, a
life-threatening condition in which sky-high
blood sugar causes blood to become thick and
ketones in your urine (diabetic ketoacidosis).
If your cells are starved for energy, your body
may begin to break down fat. This produces toxic
acids known as ketones. Watch for loss of
appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, stomach pain
and a sweet, fruity smell on your breath
especially if your blood sugar level has been
consistently higher than 250 mg/dL. You can
check your urine for excess ketones with an
over-the-counter ketones test kit. If you have
excess ketones in your urine, consult your
doctor right away or seek emergency care.
sugar (hypoglycemia). If your blood sugar level
drops below your target range, it's known as low
blood sugar. Your blood sugar level can drop for
many reasons, including skipping a meal, getting
more physical activity than normal or injecting
too much insulin. Check your blood sugar
regularly, and watch for early signs and
symptoms of low blood sugar — sweating,
shakiness, weakness, hunger, dizziness and
nausea. Later signs and symptoms include slurred
speech, drowsiness and confusion.
develop hypoglycemia during the night, you might
wake with sweat-soaked pajamas or a headache.
Thanks to a natural rebound effect, nighttime
hypoglycemia might cause an unusually high blood
sugar reading first thing in the morning.
If you have signs or symptoms of
low blood sugar, eat or drink something that
will quickly raise your blood sugar level —
fruit juice, glucose tablets, hard candy,
regular (not diet) soda or another source of
sugar. If you lose consciousness, a family
member or close contact may need to give you an
emergency injection of glucagon, a hormone that
stimulates the release of sugar into the blood.
complications of type 1 diabetes develop gradually.
The earlier you develop diabetes and the less
controlled your blood sugar the higher the risk of
complications. Eventually, diabetes complications
may be disabling or even life-threatening.
blood vessel disease. Diabetes dramatically
increases your risk of various cardiovascular
problems, including coronary artery disease with
chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke,
narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and
high blood pressure. In fact, about 75 percent
of people who have diabetes die of some type of
heart or blood vessel disease, according to the
American Heart Association.
(neuropathy). Excess sugar can injure the walls
of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that
nourish your nerves, especially in the legs.
This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or
pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes
or fingers and over a period of months or years
gradually spreads upward. Left untreated, you
could lose all sense of feeling in the affected
limbs. Damage to the nerves that control
digestion can cause problems with nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men,
erectile dysfunction may be an issue.
(nephropathy). The kidneys contain millions of
tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste
from your blood. Diabetes can damage this
delicate filtering system. Severe damage can
lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage
kidney disease, requiring dialysis or a kidney
Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the
retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially
leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases
the risk of other serious vision conditions,
such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to
the feet increases the risk of various foot
complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters
can become serious infections. Severe damage
might require toe, foot or even leg amputation.
mouth conditions. Diabetes may leave you more
susceptible to skin problems, including
bacterial infections, fungal infections and
itching. Gum infections also may be a concern,
especially if you have a history of poor dental
Osteoporosis. Diabetes may lead
to lower than normal bone mineral density,
increasing your risk of osteoporosis.
Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes
Natural and Herbal Treatment to
help stimulate pancreas to produce Insulin thus
helping cure Diabetes. Dosage and treatment duration
may vary as per the patient profile. Without any