|Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels
are above normal. People with diabetes have problems
converting food to energy. After a meal, food is
broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is
carried by the blood to cells throughout the body.
Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas,
to help them process blood glucose into energy.
People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in
the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin
properly. Eventually, the pancreas cannot make
enough insulin for the body’s needs. As a result,
the amount of glucose in the blood increases while
the cells are starved of energy. Over the years,
high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels,
leading to complications such as heart disease,
stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve problems,
gum infections, and amputation.
Type 2 diabetes
symptoms may seem harmless at first. In fact, you
can have type 2 diabetes for years and not even know
it. Look for:
thirst and frequent urination. As excess sugar
builds up in your bloodstream, fluid is pulled
from your tissues. This may leave you thirsty.
As a result, you may drink and urinate more than
hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar
into your cells, your muscles and organs become
depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger
that may persist even after you eat.
Despite eating more than usual to relieve your
constant hunger, you may lose weight. Without
the energy sugar supplies, your muscle tissues
and fat stores may simply shrink.
your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become
tired and irritable.
vision. If your blood sugar level is too high,
fluid may be pulled from your tissues including
the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your
ability to focus.
sores or frequent infections. Type 2 diabetes
affects your ability to heal and fight
infections. Bladder and vaginal infections can
be a particular problem for women.
Some people who have type 2 diabetes have patches of
dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their
bodies usually in the armpits and neck. This
condition, called acanthosis nigricans, is a sign of
type 2 diabetes, first you must understand how
glucose is normally processed in the body.
Glucose is a main
source of energy for the cells that make up your
muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two
major sources: the food you eat and your liver.
During digestion, sugar is absorbed into the
bloodstream. Normally, sugar then enters cells with
the help of insulin.
insulin comes from the pancreas, a gland located
just behind the stomach. When you eat, your pancreas
secretes insulin into your bloodstream. As insulin
circulates, it acts like a key by unlocking
microscopic doors that allow sugar to enter your
cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your
bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so
does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
Your liver acts
as a glucose storage and manufacturing center. When
your insulin levels are low when you haven't eaten
in a while, for example your liver releases the
stored glucose to keep your glucose level within a
type 2 diabetes, this process works improperly.
Instead of moving into your cells, sugar builds up
in your bloodstream. This occurs when your pancreas
doesn't make enough insulin or your cells become
resistant to the action of insulin. Exactly why this
happens is uncertain, although excess fat especially
abdominal fat and inactivity seem to be important
fully understand why some people develop type 2
diabetes and others don't. It's clear that certain
factors increase the risk, however, including:
Being overweight is a primary risk factor for
type 2 diabetes. The more fatty tissue you have,
the more resistant your cells become to insulin.
The less active you are, the greater your risk
of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you
control your weight, uses up glucose as energy
and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
history. The risk of type 2 diabetes
increases if a parent or sibling has type 2
Although it's unclear why, people of certain
races including blacks, Hispanics, American
Indians and Asian Americans — are more likely to
develop type 2 diabetes.
The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get
older, especially after age 45. Often, that's
because people tend to exercise less, lose
muscle mass and gain weight as they age. But
type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically among
children, adolescents and younger adults.
Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in
which your blood sugar level is higher than
normal, but not high enough to be classified as
type 2 diabetes. Left untreated, prediabetes
often progresses to type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes. If you developed
gestational diabetes when you were pregnant,
your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later
increases. If you gave birth to a baby weighing
more than 9 pounds, you're also at risk of type
tests can be used to screen for diabetes, including:
sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a
random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a
random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per
deciliter (mg/dL) or higher suggests diabetes.
sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after
an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level
between 70 and 100 mg/dL is normal. A fasting
blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL is
considered prediabetes, which indicates a high
risk of developing diabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL
or higher on two separate tests, you'll be
diagnosed with diabetes.
Diabetes Association recommends routine screening
for type 2 diabetes beginning at age 45, especially
if you're overweight. If the results are normal,
repeat the test every three years. If the results
are borderline, repeat the test every year.
diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may do other
tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2
diabetes — which may require different treatment
strategies. Your doctor may also recommend a
glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test
indicates your average blood sugar level for the
past two to three months. It works by measuring the
percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin,
the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The
higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin
you'll have with sugar attached. Generally, a target
A1C result is 7 percent or less.
choices can help you prevent type 2 diabetes. Even
if diabetes runs in your family, diet and exercise
can help you prevent the disease. And if you've
already been diagnosed with diabetes, the same
healthy lifestyle choices can help you prevent
potentially serious complications.
foods. Choose foods low in fat and calories.
Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Strive for variety to prevent boredom.
physical activity. Aim for 30 minutes of
moderate physical activity a day. Take a brisk
daily walk. Ride your bike. Swim laps. If you
can't fit in a long workout, break it up into
smaller sessions spread throughout the day.
pounds. If you're overweight, losing even 10
pounds can reduce the risk of diabetes. To keep
your weight in a healthy range, focus on
permanent changes to your eating and exercise
habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the
benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier
heart, more energy and improved self-esteem.
Sometimes medication is an option as well. Oral
diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glucophage) and
rosiglitazone (Avandia) may reduce the risk of type
2 diabetes — but healthy lifestyle choices remain
Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes
Natural and Herbal Treatment to
help stimulate pancreas to produce more Insulin thus
helping cure Diabetes. Dosage and treatment duration
may vary as per the patient profile. Without any