Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to become
pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected sex. Male
infertility means the male is unable to impregnate the
female because of male factors. Approximately 15% of couples
attempting their first pregnancy meet with failure. Most
authorities define these patients as primarily infertile if
they have been unable to achieve a pregnancy after one year
of unprotected intercourse. Conception normally is achieved
within twelve months in 80-85% of couples who use no
contraceptive measures, and persons presenting after this
time should therefore be regarded as possibly infertile and
should be evaluated. Data available over the past twenty years reveal
that in approximately 30% of cases pathology is found in the man alone,
and in another 20% both the man and woman are abnormal. Therefore, the
male factor is at least partly responsible in about 50% of infertile
common causes of male infertility include
is a dilation (enlargement) of the veins along the spermatic cord (vas
deferens) in the scrotum. It is caused by incompetent or inadequate
valves within the veins along the spermatic cord. The abnormal valves
obstruct normal blood flow causing a backup of blood, resulting in
dilation of the veins. This condition is the most common reversible
cause of male factor infertility.
Abnormalities in the seminal fluid
If the seminal fluid is very thick it may be difficult for the sperm
to move through it and into the woman's reproductive tract. Often the
semen can be processed to separate the moving sperm from the
surrounding debris, dead sperm and seminal fluid. The processed sperm
is usually placed directly inside the uterus with a small tube
(catheter). This is called intrauterine insemination (IUI).
Oligospermia (Low sperm count)
Most cases of male infertility are due to low sperm count. The normal
range of sperm count is between 20 million/ml and 200 million/ml. That
sperm count is below 20 million/ml indicates oligospermia. There are
many biologic and environmental factors that can lead to low sperm
count. For instance, abnormalities in production or obstruction of the
tubes that carry sperm can reduce sperm levels.
Necrospermia (Dead sperm)
is a condition in which sperm are produced and found in the semen but
are not alive and are unable to fertilize eggs. That over 40% sperms
are dead in the semen analysis indicates necrospermia.
is the complete absence of sperm in the semen. The diagnosis of
azoospermia is sometimes still made even though as many as 500,000
sperm per ml of semen may have been seen because it is extremely
unlikely that the man will be able to father a child
Positive anti-sperm antibody
There is much scientific evidence that sperm antibodies in males and
females cause infertility. Sperm antibodies are chemical substances in
the semen, cervical mucus, blood and other body fluids that neutralize
the purpose of sperm. which is to fertilize an egg.
SYMPTOMS of Male
Male infertility occurs when the man's partner does not conceive after
one year of attempting to become pregnant. Other signs and symptoms
depend on the underlying cause of the man's infertility.irritability.
Patient may also feel drowsiness. A rapid, deep breathing, known as
“kussmaul breathing” may also be noted. There may be smell of acetone in
the patient’s breath (a sign of ketoacidosis), a severely dangerous
Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can lead to altered
vision. In them prolonged high blood glucose causes changes in the shape
of the lens in the eye, leading to blurred vision. So regular visit to
ophalmologist is necessary. All unexplained quick changes in eyesight
should force as fasting blood glucose test. There are nowadays quick
inexpensive and can be safely performed.
untreated diabetes patients also complain of Nausea and vomiting.
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